Canine Lyme Disease Diagnostics (the monitoring profile)
Our Anti-Borrelia Dog (IgG) test identifies antibodies to eight antigens of B. burgdorferi at the early and later stages of infection in a single sample with 100% sensitivity. An interpretation of the results is submitted with the test report. The assay allows secure and sensitive discrimination of vaccine-derived OspA antibodies from actual infections using VlsE, OspC and other antigens to differentiate between Borrelia-specific and non-specific reactions.
Specific antigens used in this test:
VlsE, a specific surface lipoprotein of B. burgdorferi, is known as a variable major protein-like sequence expressed (VlsE). VlsE is one of the most important antigens in Lyme disease diagnostics. Infected dogs show an early strong IgG response to VlsE.
p100 protein, flagellin and an internal flagellin fragment of B. burgdorferi is the significant antigen for the late immune response to Borrelia. Generally, IgG antibodies against the p100 are detectible in all dogs with late Lyme borreliosis.
OspA (p31) – outer surface lipoprotein (Osp) of B. burgdorferi. The antibodies to OspA are usually observed in vaccinated dogs. OspA is downregulated during infection. Thus, antibodies to OspA are generally undetectable after natural infection in most non-vaccinated dogs.
OspC (p25) – is another outer surface lipoprotein (Osp) of B. burgdorferi. OspC is immunogenic during early infection and can produce protective antibody responses to B. burgdorferi infection. Antibodies to OspC can be detected after three weeks of infection. The level of antibodies to OspC decreases after seven to eleven weeks and is undetectable between four to five months after infection.
p41 (Flagellin or Flagellar filament 41kD core protein) is a protein found in the hollow cylinder forming the filament in B. burgdorferi flagellum. The flagella play a role in the Borrelia invasion of host tissue. p41 is associated with delayed IgG response and is typically detected in late Lyme borreliosis. The p41 IgG response persists with a prolonged illness.
p39 protein, or Basic membrane protein A (BmpA), is the immunogenic cell membrane component presented on the outer surface of B. burgdorferi. BmpA is an important antigen for a B. burgdorferi infection diagnostic. IgG antibodies to p39 are frequently observed in Lyme borreliosis cases, mainly in late infections. However, these antibodies can also be detected in the early stages of Lyme disease (BmpA is expressed during the invasion of the spirochete and in the development of the arthritis of Lyme disease in dogs).
p18 is the variable region of the Borrelia burgdorferi flagellin (an 18-kDa fragment). The IgG antibodies against the 18-kDa proteins are frequently detected in late Lyme disease infections.
p21 protein is a member of the OspE-F gene family. Specific IgG antibodies against p21protein can be detected at either early or late stages of Lyme disease.
Early Cancer Diagnostics
Our serological test is highly sensitive and specific for the detection of onconeural autoantibodies. This test is extremely useful in the diagnosis of tumors in the early stage. The test can identify 11 different onconeural autoantibodies in serum or plasma against intracellular neuronal antigens that are associated with 21 tumors and 14 neurological diseases.
Onconeural Autoantibodies against neuronal proteins:
Amphiphysin is a protein responsible for vesicle endocytosis. The detection of anti-Amphiphysin antibodies plays an important role in the diagnostics of stiff dog syndrome, congenital myasthenic syndromes, polyneuropathy (autonomous, sensory, sensory-motor), encephalitis, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, mammary tumors, lung cancer, thymoma, lymphoma and intestinal tumors.
CV2 (crossveinless-2) is a secreted protein that can potentiate or antagonize BMP (Bone Morphogenetic Proteins, pro-tumorigenic protein that can also act as tumor suppressor) signaling. The detection of antibodies against CV2 can point to encephalitis, cerebellar degeneration, polyneuropathy (autonomous, sensory, sensory-motor), retinopathy, uveitis, congenital myasthenic syndromes, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, epilepsy, chorea, rhombencephalitis, lung cancer, thymoma, lymphoma, uterine tumors, prostate cancer, kidney cancer.
Anti-Ri antibodies against Nova-1 (neuron-specific RNA-binding protein) are the diagnostic significance of opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, cerebellar degeneration, rhombencephalitis, lung cancer, mammary tumors, lymphoma, brain tumors, bladder cancer, ovarian tumors, testicular tumors, neuroendocrine tumors.
Anti-Yo antibodies against CDR2 and CDR62 (cerebellar degeneration-related protein 2 and 62 involved in signal transduction and gene transcription) play an important role in the diagnosis of cerebellar degeneration, opsoclonus-myoclonus syndrome, cerebellar ataxia, ovarian tumors, mammary tumors, uterine tumors, esophageal cancer, prostate cancer, gallbladder tumor, lymphoma, bladder cancer, thymoma.
Anti-Hu antibodies against Hu protein (RNA-binding protein involved in neuronal differentiation, plasticity, and cellular stress response) are diagnostically relevant in encephalitis, polyneuropathy (autonomous, sensory, sensory-motor), cerebellar degeneration, epilepsy, congenital myasthenic syndromes, retinopathy, chronic intestinal pseudo-obstruction, lung cancer, neuroblastoma, prostate cancer, bladder tumor, ovarian tumors, mammary tumors, pancreatic cancer, intestinal tumors.
Anti-recoverin antibodies against Recoverin, the neuronal calcium-binding protein, having a regulatory function in phototransduction, are diagnostically significant in tumor-associated retinopathy, a paraneoplastic syndrome that almost always occurs in connection with lung cancer, melanoma, mammary tumors, ovarian tumors, uterine tumors, intestinal tumors, kidney tumor, pancreatic cancer, prostate cancer, lymphoma, basal cell and squamous cell carcinomas.
Anti-SOX1 antibodies against the SOX1 protein (transcription factor involved in activation of transcription, may act as a switch in neuronal development and determinate of the cell fate) are frequently associated with congenital myasthenic syndromes and cerebellar degeneration. The detection of these antibodies can also be a sign of lung cancer.
Antibodies against Titin (a giant protein, that functions as a molecular spring that is responsible for the passive elasticity of muscle) are identified in myasthenia gravis. The detection of anti-titin antibodies is also associated with the presence of thymoma.
Antibodies against Zic4 (zinc-finger protein 4 that is involved in the regulation of neuronal development and function) are associated with cerebellar degeneration and frequently with lung cancer.
Antibodies against GAD65 (65 kDa glutamic acid decarboxylase is a major enzyme in the synthesis of neurotransmitter GABA, a critical component of neurophysiologic function) are usually detected in stiff dog syndrome and cerebellar ataxia. These antibodies are frequently associated with lung cancer, thymoma, mammary tumors, intestinal tumors, lymphoma and less frequently with uterine tumors, pancreatic cancer, thymoma, and multiple myeloma.
Antibodies against Tr (DNER, Delta/Notch-like epidermal growth factor-related receptor that mediates neuron-glia interaction during astrocytogenesis) occur with cerebellar degeneration and with lymphoma, mammary tumors, lung cancer, uterine tumors, and brain tumors.
Canine Echinococcus Test
The Echinococcus test is a highly sensitive test that detects the Echinococcus-specific IgG antibodies against Echinococcus granulosus and Echinococcus multilocularis in the serum and plasma of infected dogs. This test also enables differentiation between cystic and alveolar echinococcosis, caused by E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, respectively. This specific diagnostic test allows differentiating infections with E. granulosus and E. multilocularis, and detects the IgG antibodies to the following species-specific proteins:
Em95 is E. multilocularis secreted protein, a dominant oncospheral antigen that is upregulated during oncosphere activation and is involved in cell adhesion. This is a host-protective antigen.
Em18 is E. multilocularis antigen. Em18 is a fragment of the EM10 protein that is expressed by the larval stage of the parasite and associated with parasite invasive growth. The EM10 belongs to the ezrin-radixin-moesin family of cytoskeletal effector proteins that link to membrane-bound proteins at the cell surface and relate to parasitic metacestode proliferation and degeneration.
EgAgB - genus-specific Echinococcus antigen is an abundant lipoprotein released by the larva of E. granulosus into the host tissues. This protein has been shown to play an important role in modulating host immune responses. It also plays a role in the parasite’s lipid metabolism.
p7 - antigen-specific for Echinococcus.
p16/p18 - antigens specific for Echinococcus.
p21 - antigen-specific for Echinococcus and other parasites.
p25/p26 antigens are surface proteins that protect the parasite from a harmful environment inside the midgut. These proteins are associated with parasite invasion through the plasma membrane of midgut epithelial cells at the site of parasite penetration.